Indonesia has the potential to become the world's third largest producer of pulp and paper. The country has an advantage in the availability of wood basic material . The country has one of the world's largest tropical forests. Currently Indonesia is the 11th largest producer of paper and the 9th largest producer of pulp in the world.
Indonesia is a tropical country where trees grow three times faster than in countries non tropical regions like Europe. The country also gains from its strategic geographical location in the fast growing Asia which is a huge market for pulp and paper .
Competition is sharp globally in the business of pulp and paper and meanwhile, call for environmental conservation is also strong Countries of destination for exports of timber products are stricter in their conditions rejecting timber products from illegal source or countries accused of damaging forests. Official certificates are needed to show the legality of timber products.
In 2011, exports of paper by Indonesia were still facing hurdles in dumping allegations. The fact that the price of Indonesian paper is highly competitive has given rise to the suspicions that the country has committed dumping . Every year there are always countries accusing Indonesia of dumping . The country's paper industrialists and the government have been made busy in seeking to prove that the allegations were false such as through the World Trade Organization .
H.M. Mansur, the chairman of the association of pulp and paper companies (APKI) said once the anti dumping import duty was slapped on a paper product , other related products would likely be imposed with additional import duties.
Indonesia has been a target of dumping allegations by countries of destination of exports of paper. Some countries imposed anti dumping import duties and countervailing duty (CVD). It costs a lot of energy and fund battling the allegation. South Korea has imposed anti dumping import duty on writing and printing paper and Malaysia on newsprint from Indonesia in the past five years.
Indonesian products have also been imposed with higher imports duties in some countries on absence of bilateral trade agreement. For example, Pakistan imposes lower import duties on Chinese paper under preferential trade agreement (PTA). The import duty on Chinese paper is 17% as against 40% on Indonesian paper as the country has no PTA with Pakistan.
Structure of pulp and paper industry
a. Profile of pulp and paper industry
APKI said the country has 80 pulp and paper companies including 10 operating integrated factories of pulp and paper, 67 paper factories and 3 pulp factories . New factories are generally larger and use higher technology.
In 2009 , the country pulp producers have a total installed capacity of 7,902,100 tons per year, including 5,232,000 tons or 81.2% of integrated factories producing pulp and paper per year and 1,215,000 tons of pulp factories per year.
PMDN companies make up 64 of the 80 companies consisting of pulp factories with a capacity 2,797,100 tons a year and paper producers with a capacity of 4,913,380 tons .
PMA companies are smaller in number only 13 units but they are largest in capacity . The 13 PMA companies have a production capacity of 3,410,000 tons of pulp and 4,800,300 tons of paper a year .
The remaining 3 companies are state companies (BUMN) including PT, Companies Paper Leces, PT. Paper Padalarang and PT. Paper Kraft Aceh. The three companies have a total capacity of only 240,000 tons of pulp and 337,900 tons of paper a year . See the following table.
Most of the pulp and paper factories are located in Java mainly West Java and East Java totaling 64 companies Pulp factories in Java have a total capacity of 340,000 tons (5.3%) and paper factories with a total capacity of 8,550,440 tons (85.2%). In Java , paper factories have larger capacity than pulp factories . Large paper factories are Java include PT, Indah Kiat in Serang , Banten and PT, Tjiwi Kimia in Sidoarjo,
Sumatra has 14 pulp and paper factories mainly pulp factories. Pulp factories have a total capacity of 5,552,000 tons as against paper production capacity of only 1,491,140 tons. One of the largest pulp companies in Sumatra is PT. Riau Andalan Pulp & Paper in Riau.
The government has banned construction of new pulp factory in Java . Sumatra, Kalimantan and Papua, which have larger lands with larger source of wood basic material, become the choices for place of new factories .
c. Expansion of capacity of pulp and paper industry sluggish
The production capacity of the country's pulp and paper industry has expanded by the growth was sluggish on difficulties in securing the basic material. The government allows only pulp and paper industry to use timber from industrial timber estates (HTI) A pulp and paper plant is required to have a HTI , development of which will take years, producers said.
In 2005 , the capacity of the country's pulp factories totaled 6,447,100 tons, up to 6,697,100 tons in 2006. In 2007, there was no capacity expansion . In 2008, the capacity expanded 17.99% to 7,902,100 tons.
The increase in capacity was recorded after PT, Indah Kiat Pulp & Paper (PT, IKPP - (Riau), PT. Riau Andalan Pulp & Paper (PT. RAPP) and PT. Lontar Papyrus (Jambi) completed de-bottlenecking . In 2009, the capacity remained at 7,902,100 tons.
The production capacity for paper did not differ much . In the period of 2005-2007, the capacity grew only 2% per year. A strong growth in paper production capacity was recorded only in 2008 after the completion of de-bottlenecking by PT IKKP, PT RAPP and PT Lontar Papyrus, resulting in a 17.56% increase in the country's production capacity from 10,359,481 tons in 2007 to 12,178,650 tons in 2008.
d. Production capacity of cultural paper
The country's paper products include cultural paper (writing, printing, newsprint), industrial paper (liner, kraft and board) and specialty paper (tissue, cigarette paper, paper for banknotes, etc.)
Based on official figures of APKI, cultural paper had the largest production capacity in 2008 . Cultural paper accounted for 42% or 4.184 tons of the country's total paper production capacity of 12.178 million tons.
Main players in pulp and paper industry
a. RAPP , largest producer of pulp
PT. Riau Andalan Pulp & Paper (RAPP) is the largest producer of pulp and paper in the country' Its integrated factories have a production capacity of 2 million tons per year. The pulp subsidiary of Asia Pacific Resources International Limited (APRIL) of the Raja Garuda Mas Group in Riau is the largest pulp maker in Asia.
The second largest producer of pulp is PT. Indah Kiat Pulp & Paper (IKPP), a subsidiary of the Sinar Mas Group. IKPP operates a integrated factory of pulp and paper . It has three factories with a total capacity of 1,820,000 tons per year. In 2009, IKPP's production totaled 1,866 million tons of pulp including 618,000 tons of paper and 1.268 million tons of packaging paper .
The Sinar Mas Group has other pulp and paper making subsidiaries including PT. Lontar Papyrus Pulp & Paper Industry (LPPI). The company, which is located in Jambi, has production capacity of 665,000 tons per year. Its real production in 2009 included 608,700 tons of pulp and 51,200 tons of tissue paper disposed of n the domestic and export markets.
b. Indah Kiat , largest producer of paper
PT, Indah Kiat Pulp & Paper Tbk (IKPP) of the Sinar Mas Group is the largest paper producer with installed capacity 2,111,000 tons per year, IKPP has three paper factories - in Tangerang with a of capacity 106,000 tons/year, in Bengkalis 700,000 tons/year and in Serang 1,305,000 tons/year. With that capacity, IKPP is the largest paper producer in Asia,
After IKPP, the second largest paper producer is PT. Pabrik Kertas Tjiwi Kimia Tbk which is also of the Sinar Mas Group. Tjiwi Kimia has a total installed capacity of 1,044,000 tons,
Based on the annual report of Tjiwi Kimia in 2009, it had expanded its production capacity to 1,412,000 tons per year, including 1,014,000 tons paper, 78,000 tons of packaging paper and 320,000 tons of other types of paper (stationery) per year, Its factory is located in Sidoarjo, East Java, producing various types of paper and stationery including writing books, notebooks, envelopes, computer paper , gift paper, shopping bags, etc.
Another major paper producer is PT. Kiani Paper having an initial production capacity of 525,000 tons per year. Recently it expanded its production capacity to 1,125,000 tons per year.
Pulp and paper production
Steady growth of 7% a year was recorded in the country's pulp and paper production with capacity utilization of around 80% for several years before 2008.
A setback was recorded in the wake of the 2008's global financial woes that resulted in weak demand globally . The country's pulp and paper industry also suffered a setback that year but caused more by difficulties in securing basic material.
That year, two largest pulp producers PT Indah Kiat Pulp & Paper Tbk and PT Riau Andalan Pulp & Paper were faced legal case suspending their operation in pulp production over alleged use of illegal trees. The two companies were accused by police of illegal logging although the allegation was denied by the forest minister. Police and the forestry ministry have different interpretation of the regulation on illegal logging.
In 2005, the country's pulp production reached 5,467,540 tons, up to 6,231,174 tons in 2006 and to 6,282,330 tons in the following year. In 2008, the production of pulp fell again to 5,910,416 tons before rising to 6,525,099 tons in 2009 to follow the recovery of the world's economy notably in Asia In addition , PT Riau Andalan Pulp & Paper and PT Indah Kiat Pulp & Paper Tbk were allowed to resume operation to produce pulp.
a. Production paper
Indonesia's production of paper in the past five years has grown sluggishly by only 3.4% a year . In 2008, the production even fell 5% .
In 2005, the country's production of paper totaled 8,207,620 tons, up to 8,637,615 tons in 2006 and to 8,680,972 tons in 2007.
In 2008, the production fell 4.94% to 8,251,972 tons, as a result of legal case involved PT Indah Kiat Pulp & Paper Tbk and PT Riau Andalan Pulp & paper. In 2009, the production of paper rose 12.80% to 9,308,225 tons as the legal case involving the two larger producers was already settled and they could resume normal operation. ....