The length of roads in Indonesia is not proportional with the number of the road users . The growth of 3.3% a year in road length is much short of requirement. Every year the number of motor vehicles in the country grows by more than 15% on the average.
Road infrastructure is vital to support the country's economic development and facilitate the public activities. New roads have continued to be built and come on line but the additional roads are not enough to keep pace with the fast growing users. Therefore, inadequate road infrastructure has hampered efforts to accelerate economic development in many areas.
In order to cope with the condition, high way development planned by the government is made part of the expansion of national connectivity in the program for territorial and strategic area development formulated in the Master Plan for Acceleration and Expansion of Indonesian Economic Development (MP3EI). The country is divided into six economic corridors Sumatra, Java, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Bali - Nusa Tenggara, and Maluku - Papua. Acceleration of economic development in each of the corridors will need the support of road infrastructure. The government has launched big program for development of road infrastructure to facilitate transport and distribution of goods. Many big toll road projects are under construction and being planned.
Classification of Roads in Indonesia
There are various types of roads in Indonesia by system, function and status. By system there are primary roads which are highways serving mainly to facilitate distribution of goods and services between provinces and secondary roads are those serving to facilitate distribution of goods and services in a city.
By function, there are arterial roads, collector roads and local roads. Arterial roads functions to facilitate main transport for long distance with high speed. Collector road function as feeder roads to facilitate collection and distribution transport for mid range transport with medium speed. Local roads function to facilitate short distance transport with lower speed.
By status roads in the country are classified into national roads, provincial road, district (regency) road, city road and village road. National roads are arterial roads and collector roads in the primary road system. This system provides highway connection between provincial capitals and national strategic roads and toll roads. Provincial roads are collector roads in primary road system providing connections between provincial capital and municipal cities or towns and between district capitals in a province and provincial strategic highways
District (regency) roads are local roads in primary road networks providing connections between the capital cities of regency and lower district (kecamatan) municipal towns, between the municipal town of kecamatan, the capital city of the regency and local activity centers in the regency. The roads also connect public roads in a secondary road networks in the regency and regency's strategic roads.
Urban roads are public roads in secondary road network that provide connection between service centers and residential areas in a city. Village roads are public roads that provide connection between areas and settlement areas in a village and with local roads.
Road growth in length
The length of roads provides an indicator of progress in road infrastructure development. The growth also indicates the capacity of roads in operation.
Roads grow in length trying to keep pace with the growing number of motor vehicle. By 2009, the country's had 476,337 kilometers of highways and city roads.
The highways grew 8.8% in length in 2009 or the highest growth in nine years. In previous years the growth rate ranged from 0.6% to 7% a year - or 3.31% a year in the average in the past decade.
The roads include State roads, Provincial roads and Regency roads or City roads. In 2009 state roads totaled 38,570 km; provincial roads totaled 48,020 km and regency/city roads 389,747 km.
Table - 1
Length of highways/roads by status (Km)
Year State Province Regency/city Total Growth
2000 26,272 46,781 282,898 355,951
2001 26,328 47,877 287,577 361,782 1.6%
2002 27,616 48,905 291,841 368,362 1.8%
2003 29,318 48,424 292,774 370,516 0.6%
2004 34,628 40,125 298,175 372,929 0.6%
2005 34,628 40,125 316,255 391,009 4.9%
2006 34,628 40,125 319,041 393,794 0.7%
2007 34,628 40,125 346,782 421,535 7.0%
2008 34,628 40,125 363,006 437,759 3.8%
2009 38,570 48,020 389,747 476,337 8.8%
Sources: Public works ministry and regional offices of the ministry
Unpaved roads 42.7% of roads in length
The length of roads indicates the capacity roads to facilitate transport of goods and services. However, the capacity is not fully described with the length as the condition of the roads has to be taken into account.
In the past 10 years, paved roads have dominated the country's roads, but unpaved roads still make up a big portion of around 42.7%. However, state roads, provincial roads and regency /city roads in Java and Sumatra, two most densely populated Indonesian islands, have been paved.
Table - 2
Length of roads by condition, 1987 - 2009 (Km)
Year Paved Unpaved Unpaved road
2000 203,214 152,737 42.9 355,951
2001 212,935 148,847 41.1 361,782
2002 211,998 156,364 42.4 368,362
2003 216,109 154,407 41.7 370,516
2004 206,144 166,485 44.7 372,629
2005 216,714 174,295 44.6 391,009
2006 208,732 185,062 47.0 393,794
2007 256,548 164,987 39.1 421,535
2008 258,744 179,015 40.9 437,759
2009 271,230 205,107 43.1 476,337
Sources: Public works ministry and regional offices of the ministry
Number of motor vehicles grows faster than length of roads
Construction of roads is to facilitate mainly public transport by cars or other motor vehicles. Development of new roads is expected to keep pace with the growing number of road users that smooth traffic could be maintained.
Based on official data, the number of motor vehicles both passenger cars, buses, trucks and motor vehicles has continued to grow faster than the length of roads in the past decade. The length of road grew faster than the number of motor vehicles only in 2009.
The highest annual growth in number of motor vehicles was 28.1% in 2007. That year, the length of roads grew only by 7%. Averagely the number of motor vehicles grew 15.8% per year in the period of 2000-2009 as against a growth rate of only 3.31% in the length of roads. The lopsidedness cause problem in land transport.
The largest population is that of motor vehicles totaling 61 million units in 2010. Many people choose motor vehicles as means of transport to cope with traffic in large cities.
Jakarta is one of three cities in Asia having the largest number of motor vehicles. The number of motor vehicles has grown fast because of a number of factors the prices within the purchasing power of most middle income people, efficiency in fuel and in coping with traffic jams.
Traffic in large cities in Indonesia, notably Jakarta, is over crowded. In Jakarta, there were 560 units of motorcycle per 1,000 people in 2010. In the country, the number of motor vehicles was 325 for every 1,000 people on the average.
Table - 3
Number of motor vehicles by types, 1987-2010
Road development concept
Roads in Indonesia have been developed as infrastructure to provide connections between the production centers and facilitate distribution of goods and human traffic. Development of roads, therefore, is brisker in more populous islands like Java. Roads are built to support expansion of production centers such as industrial areas.
Roads are built to give access to other important infrastructure such as airports, seaports including container ports and fishing ports, etc. The condition of roads in areas having big ports is relatively good compared to areas not having such facilities.
Construction of roads is planned and implemented partly by the government including regional administrations. The central government is responsible for the development of state roads and toll roads and provincial and district administrations are responsible for the construction of provincial and district or local roads.
Construction and maintenance or repairs of non toll roads are finance with funds from state budget, but there are some financed with foreign fund aid. Toll roads are financed by the government from state budget, through cooperation with the private sector and fully by the private sector with the government as the regulator.
Development of all roads is based on the Area Layout Plan (RTRW). The strategy in the high way development is made as part of the expansion of national connectivity in the program for territorial and strategic area development formulated in the Master Plan for Acceleration and Expansion of Indonesian Economic Development (MP3EI). In the government's economic development plan, the country is divided into six economic corridors Sumatra, Java, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Bali - Nusa Tenggara, and Maluku - Papua.
The roads in Sumatra are built mainly to support expansion of production centers including natural resource processing centers and development of national energy center in that island. Sumatra is a big producer of rubber, palm oil and coal. Development of highways is also directed to development of access to railway stations in that island.
Development of the Sumatra economic corridor includes development of 11 units of Special Economic Areas (KEK) including in Aceh, Sibolga, Padang, Dumai, Bengkulu, Jambi and Pangkal Pinang.
Industrial clusters also are to be built as processing centers for local primary commodities. Industrial clusters will include palm oil processing cluster in Seimangke, North Sumatra and in Dumai, Riau.
In the area of Karimun, there will be cluster of shipyards. Other industrial clusters are also planned in Pekanbaru and Palembang.
In Java, development of highways is directed toward providing access to economic centers and industrial centers such as in Bandung of West Java, and textile industrial area in Semarang of Central Java, machine and equipment industrial center in Jakarta and food processing center in Sidoarjo of East Java. Java has four industrial clusters including two in Jakarta and one each in Cirebon and Sidorajo. Development of the cluster will include development of roads.
Construction of roads in Kalimantan is directed mainly toward providing support for production centers including processing center for minerals and energy development centers. Development of highways will provide connections between main cities like Samarinda, Banjarmasin, Palangkaya, and Pontianak in Kalimantan.
East Kalimantan has big coal and oil and gas production centers, Central Kalimantan has forest-based industrial centers, and rubber plantations, and South Kalimantan has large coal reserves. And West Kalimantan Barat has large oil palm plantations.
In area around Pontianak, there will be five units of Special Economic Area (KEK). Two other units of KEK will also be built in area North of Samarinda and one in the frontier area in northeast of Kalimantan that shares land border with Malaysia.
Steel industrial cluster will be built in Batulicin of South Kalimantan; aluminum industrial cluster is planned in Mempawah of West Kalimantan. A bauxite processing factory to produce alumina and aluminum will be built in area around Mempawah.
In Sulawesi, roads will be developed mainly to facilitate access to production centers and processing centers for agricultural, plantation and fishery products.
Meanwhile, construction of road infrastructure in Bali - Nusa Tenggara is to support tourism development and to facilitate food supplies.
In Papua and Maluku, roads will be developed to provide access to natural resource development centers.
The government has planned development of a number of new roads for the period of 2010 - 2014. In Sumatra, road development will be highway along the eastern part of that island with feeder roads from Sumatra's middle and western highways.
In Java, the priority will be development of highway along the northern part of the island through cities like Merak, Cirebon, Pekalongan, Surabaya, Probolinggo, and Banyuwangi. Also to be built is a highway along the middle part of Java through Labuan, Bogor, Bandung, Purwokerto, Wonosobo, Salatiga, Surakarta Nganjuk and Surabaya.
Development of roads in Bali will be mainly to provide feeder roads connected with coastal cities in that island such as Gilimanuk, Singaraja, Semarapura, Denpasar and Kuta - Tanah.
Development of roads in Java will include toll roads in economic corridors connected with major cities like Jakarta - Bojonegara, Jakarta - Cikampek, Cikampek - Semarang - Surabaya, Semarang - Kudus, and Surabaya - Gresik. Continuation of the construction of Jakarta outer ring road (JORR Toll) that provides links between cities in the Greater Jakarta Areas will also be included in the road development projects in Java.
In Kalimantan, construction is planned for a highway that will provide connections between eastern, central and southern parts of Kalimantan.
In Sulawesi, new highways will be built in middle and southern part of that island . Three main highways in Sulawesi are eastern highway, central highways, and western highways.
In Nusa Tenggara, new roads will be built to provide access to activity centers and passenger terminals of Type A.
In Maluku, road networks will be built on the islands of Buru, Seram, and Halmahera, as well as in Ambon and nearby towns.
In Papua, roads will be built in strategic areas to provide connections between cities and to access to isolated villages in the interior areas.